The hottest scientific instruments are the most im

  • Detail

Scientific instruments are the "most important thing of the country" that determines the future of the nation.

what is the use of the hundreds of millions and billions of Yuan invested by the state for the national economy? Member ye Peijian is often asked this way

as the technical director of satellite projects such as Chang'e, ye Peijian attaches great importance to the development of scientific instruments. In his view and that of many scientists, scientific instruments can not only satisfy human curiosity, but also determine the future of the nation

who says scientific instruments can't make money

ye Peijian told a story at the two sessions. In the previous passenger train, when the staff stopped, they knocked the wheels with a wrench or steel bar. Do you know why he knocked? Listen to the sound

in the past, the quality of wheel bearings was poor, and long-term load caused cracks. The purpose of wheel knocking was to check the abnormal sound. Freight trains are more prone to problems, but they can't stop and knock, so the bearings often break

this problem was actually solved by a Chinese aerospace project. An infrared detector used on satellites can sensitively capture the changes of heat. If many infrared instruments are arranged along the railway, the abnormal heat of the bearing can be detected at the first time, and then an alarm can be issued

ye Peijian told us that there are many instruments on the satellite that can be used to make money directly or with a little modification. For example, the design idea of the high-precision camera lens on the satellite can be used in many devices. For example, if it is not on the lithography machine, you can't build large integrated circuits such as CPU. The computer used on the satellite, with low power, light weight and resistance to extreme conditions, is the template for future computers

the secular value of scientific instruments is not often mentioned as its sacred value. Wilson, the founder of Fermilab, asked Congress for $200million as an accelerator. When asked whether the project would help national defense, he replied: it can't defend the United States, but it makes the United States worth defending

in fact, accelerators have also made contributions to mankind. Interconnection was born in the particle accelerator laboratory in Europe. The new technology produced by accelerators has also stimulated the progress of the electronic industry

scientific instruments can also be directly used in the industry. Famous scientist Wang Daheng once cited many examples: electron microscope, mass spectrometer, CT scanner, X-ray material structure analyzer, optical phase contrast microscope and scanning tunneling microscope, which not only won the Nobel Prize for inventors, but also opened up a rolling financial source

the biological industry is highly expected, and the most popular practical biological equipment, such as gene chips or micro motion probes, are laboratory instruments

with people's attention to environment and food safety, various testing instruments originally used in laboratories also began to provide information for daily life

prototypes of all advanced machines

insufficient support for key components and instruments is a problem for China's equipment manufacturing industry. Feng Xisheng, an underwater robot expert, said at the two sessions that when China invests in supporting major equipment, it often ignores the basic work of advanced equipment

in the final analysis, this foundation is precision instruments, and scientific instruments are the most precise among them. Other machines originate here

the steam engine is probably the most important machine in history. The first steam engine was an instrument developed by the barologist Papan out of interest. It used steam to create vacuum. A hundred years later, a scientific instrument craftsman at the University of Glasgow made important improvements to the steam engine. He was watt

since the 18th century, it has become a European fashion to buy scientific instruments with an exposed length of about 88 ~ 1553 meters. Soon, a large number of practical machines came out, which is not accidental. Mechanical inventors are often scientific instrument makers or watchmakers. Britain was the world center of scientific instruments at that time, which had a lot to do with its becoming the birthplace of the industrial revolution

the highest accuracy comes from optical instruments. For example, CNC machine tools, the mother of industry, use a ruler called grating. The accuracy of its marking determines the upper limit of machine tool accuracy

the best grating comes from a German company: it spent 200million euros to build a three-stage vibration isolation workshop, with an amplitude of no more than 1.5 nm and a temperature difference of only 1% degrees. This company has the best atomic clock in the world, and the length transmission standard that China's National Bureau of Metrology does not have. Therefore, German machine tools can use the most accurate ruler in the world

high end manufacturing is inseparable from precision instruments, which are often scientific instruments. The famous Zeiss company produces not only high-quality astronomical telescopes and microscopes, but also camera lenses and industrial lenses, which is not cross-border. Optical instruments were originally used in science

the reason why the bearing will not break in a speeding high-speed train is due to the high accuracy provided by optical instruments; The piston engine with the least friction and the jet engine with the longest service life are also inseparable from optical instruments

developed industrial countries not only have a solid foundation for scientific instrument manufacturing, but also the government dare not despise instrument innovation. The National Nature Foundation of the United States and the National Institutes of health made special funds and proposed to ensure the leadership of the scientific instrument industry in the United States; The European Union spent 4.1 billion euros on new instruments such as radiation sources and telescopes in previous years among the 72 tension machines of several brands at home and abroad surveyed; Since 2004, the Japanese government has invested heavily in the development of the world's cutting-edge analytical meters

At the beginning of this year, the Chinese government announced to allocate 800million yuan to support scientific instruments, which is the largest investment in history. However, China still lacks experience in manufacturing scientific instruments. At present, most of the domestic industry is produced in small workshops, and R & D investment accounts for only 2% and 3% of sales. Foreign industries are dominated by giant enterprises with a long history, and R & D investment accounts for an average of one tenth of sales

in a city in Jiangsu Province, 130 kinds of key materials needed by the national economy have become an instrument center. There are more than 100 instrument enterprises, but many of them start with imitation, which is difficult to say that they have formed their own core competitiveness

most of China's rapid scientific research funds are used to purchase various high-end scientific instruments, most of which cannot be produced in China. The deficit of scientific instruments in 2010 was close to US $10billion. A survey conducted by Zhu Xing, a member of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference, showed that 60% of China's annual trillion yuan investment in fixed assets for scientific research is spent on imported equipment, and some areas are completely dependent on imports

the boss of Beijing Jitian instrument company told Science and technology that 40 years ago, some key parts could only be imported. For example, photomultiplier tubes, which are necessary for spectral instruments, directly affect the sensitivity and stability of instruments. After 40 years, the device still relies on imports, costing the company more than 3 million yuan a year

manufacturing precision scientific instruments requires the support of precision optics and special materials science, and these fields emphasize the accumulation of hundreds of years, which cannot be achieved overnight. One data is: the development investment of foreign scientific instrument companies accounts for an average of 10% of sales, while China accounts for only 2% to 3%, so domestic instruments only linger in the medium and low-end market

Zhao Zhongxian, a physicist and member of the CPPCC National Committee on accelerating technological progress, cited an example: the vacuum ultraviolet laser angle resolved photoelectron spectrometer completed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences six years ago has made important achievements in the research of high-temperature superconductors. The research and development of some instruments is very difficult, and they can't be done in a short time. Zhao Zhongxian believes that the original advanced instruments are accumulated for a long time with the support of the national scientific research plan, including the 863 plan, the 973 Plan, and the plans of the Academy of Sciences and the NSFC. They involve materials, devices, design capabilities and talent training, and are a comprehensive result

if a country cannot manufacture some sophisticated instruments, even if it is really rich, it is still not a real developed country. Zhao Zhongxian said

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI